To setup your Raspberry Pi you will need:
- Raspberry Pi
- USB Mouse/keyboard
- HDMI Screen or monitor
- power supply and connecting cables
- Optional WiFi USB Dongle if not using Ethernet connectivity and not using a Pi 3 Model B or latest Pi Zero
- Optional USB hub for Pis with only 1 USB connector (A+ and Zero)
- SD Card 8GB or larger – recommend 8GB (and adapter to be able to write SD card in laptop)
- Latest Raspbian image based on Debian Jessie : https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_latest
The OS for the Raspberry Pi is installed on an SD card, which the Pi boots from. To create the SD card you need to download the image from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/. For this lab
Creating the SD card
Select the latest Raspbian image based off Debian Jessie: https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_latest.
Note: The instructions in this course assume you are using the latest version of Raspbian based on Jessie. They will not work on the older Wheezy based images as there were significant changes between versions. Raspbian Jessie has also had some major updates at the end of 2016 and into 2017, so I recommend downloading the latest image, even if you purchased a pre-flashed card.
Write the image to the SD card using the instructions for your laptop OS (this takes some time) Note that you cannot just copy the .img file to the SD card, you need to use the instructions below:
- Linux – https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/installation/installing-images/linux.md
- Mac OS – https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/installation/installing-images/mac.md
- Windows – https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/installation/installing-images/windows.md
Eject the SD card from your laptop and insert into the Raspberry Pi SD slot
Booting the Raspberry Pi
The first time you boot the Raspberry Pi you will need to have a Keyboard, Mouse and screen connected to the Pi to be able to do the initial configuration. You will also need network connectivity (Ethernet or WiFi). There is a quickstart guide available if you are new to the Raspberry Pi: https://www.raspberrypi.org/help/quick-start-guide/. It is possible to startup a Raspberry Pi without keyboard, mouse an monitor if you meet certain criteria – this is discussed and demonstrated in this video : https://developer.ibm.com/tv/setting-up-your-raspberry-pi-without-a-keyboard-mouse-or-monitor/
Connect the power supply to the Raspberry Pi – you should see the boot sequence on the screen
The primary desktop is displayed when boot is complete:
If your screen looks like the image below rather than the screen above then you have an old Raspbian image and should start with a newer image flashed to the SD card.
If you need to configure WiFi click on the network icon in the top right of the screen and select your WiFi network by clicking on the name. Enter the network credentials then you should be connected – further details about configuring WiFi can be found here:https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/wireless/README.md
Note: The rest of the setup needs to be done in a terminal window.
You can continue to work on the Raspberry Pi or switch to using a remote connection from your laptop – this will allow you to cut and paste from this document rather than having to type every command. To setup a remote connection you need the IP address of the Raspberry Pi. Enter the following command in a terminal window on the Raspberry Pi:
$ hostname -I
then use the appropriate instructions for your OS to access your raspberry pi:
- Linux/Mac OS : https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/remote-access/ssh/unix.md
- Windows : https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/remote-access/ssh/windows.md
Configuring the Raspberry Pi
Update the configuration on the Raspberry Pi.
- In a terminal window enter the following command
$ sudo raspi-config
You should now see the configuration tool:
To use the tool select from the main menu using the arrow keys then hit tab to jump to the select button. The space bar or enter key accepts the current selected action (Select or Finish). When an action has been performed use tab key to jump back to the list to select another option.
The following steps need to be taken in the configuration tool:
1 – Change User Password (default user is pi with default password raspberry)
2 – Hostname (Set a hostname for your pi – default is raspberrypi)
4 – Localisation Options (set the Locale/Timezone and Keyboard layout for your location. If using WiFi set your country to ensure correct use of WiFi frequencies)
5 -Interfacing Options – select the following options:
P2 – SSH enable to be able to connect to the Raspberry Pi via ssh
P3 – VNC enable to be able to connect to the Raspberry Pi User Interface remotely
P5 – I2C enable to allow the SenseHAT to communicate with the Raspberry Pi
Finish (select to reboot)
Your Raspberry Pi will reboot after finishing the configuration. If using a remote connection you will need to wait for the Raspberry Pi to reboot then reconnect (you should get the same IP address, if not use the hostname -I command to discover the new IP address assigned to your Pi.
Accessing via VNC server
VNC is a service that allows the Graphical User Interface of the Raspberry Pi to be access remotely using a VNC client.
To access the Raspberry Pi you will need a VNC client installed. There are a number of VNC Clients available. The Raspberry Pi web site includes instructions on how to set up and use RealVNC:
Updating the firmware and Raspbian OS
Update all packages that have been updated since the Raspbian image was created.
Enter the following commands in a terminal window:
$ sudo rpi-update
$ sudo reboot -n
after the last command the Raspberry Pi will reboot. If using a remote terminal reconnect when the Raspberry Pi reboots. To update the raspbian OS enter the following commands:
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get -y upgrade
$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove
Updates for Node.js
Run the following command to update Node.js and npm to the latest levels:
For Node applications to be able to run Bluetooth scans it needs to be given permission
(note the use of the back quotes surrounding `which node`. If you use standard single quotes you will get an error – if possible copy and paste the line below into a terminal window on the Pi to get the correct quotes):
$ sudo setcap cap_net_raw+eip $(eval readlink -f `which node`)
An additional install
There is a nice editor called geany. To install the geany editor run the following command:
$ sudo apt-get install -y geany
Reboot pi to run all the updates
The Raspberry Pi is now ready. Please reboot before starting the course:
$ sudo reboot -n